Tuesday, December 09, 2014

Turning biological cells to stone 'Zombie' method hardens biostructures for mass production

Turning biological cells to stone. 'Zombie' method hardens biostructures for mass production.

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. -- Changing flesh to stone sounds like the work of a witch in a fairy tale.

But a new technique to transmute living cells into more permanent materials that defy rot and can endure high-powered probes is widening research opportunities for biologists who are developing cancer treatments, tracking stem cell evolution or even trying to understand how spiders vary the quality of the silk they spin.

The simple, silica-based method also offers materials scientists the ability to "fix" small biological entities like red blood cells into more commercially useful shapes. And, at least in theory, the method can transmute naturally grown objects like livers and spleens from livestock into non-organic "zombie" replicas that function simultaneously at a variety of length-scales, from macro to nano, in more sophisticated ways than the most advanced machinery can produce.

nanotechnology today

A Potential Battery Terminal? This image shows the complex multiscale structure of a carbonized mouse spleen. Credit: Sandia National Laboratories. Usage Restrictions: professional media

Related news release: Turning biological cells to stone improves cancer and stem cell research.

"Why go to the trouble of making objects if nature will do it for you?" asks lead investigator Bryan Kaehr, of the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories.

The unusual method has been the subject of papers in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS), and on Dec. 8, Nature Communications.

The initial insight came when Kaehr and then-University of New Mexico (UNM) postdoctoral student Jason Townson discovered that the silica slurry they were using had an unexpected property: At a reasonably low pH level, the silica molecules, instead of clotting with each other, bound only to surfaces against which they rested, forming the thinnest of coatings.

Kaehr wondered if a similar coating on biological cells would strengthen cell structures so they could be examined for longer periods with more powerful tools. So the researchers put cultured tissue cells in a silica solution and let the mix harden overnight. Then they raised the temperature to burn off the biomaterial. What remained, astonishingly, were perfectly replicated cells, like little row houses of glass.

But the replicated cells were so sturdy that Kaehr surmised that the slurry must have coated the cells inside as well as out. Breaking a row of cells as one would a tiny pane of glass, the team examined their interiors with an electron microscope. They found they had indeed replicated the nanoscopic organelles of the cell as well as its exterior. They had discovered a way to create a near-perfect silica counterfeit of a biological organism, from its overall shape down to its nanostructures.

This initial result is already being used by biologists in Finland to create three-dimensional models that preserve the different stages of stem cells as they evolve to their final form, said Sandia fellow and paper co-author Jeff Brinker, who is also a UNM professor.

Townson, now on the faculty at UNM, uses the method to research the movements of cancer-fighting nanoparticles inserted into chicken cells prior to their conversion to silica. "With optical microscopy, it is difficult to form an image of the interactions of nanoparticles with cells while preserving a three-dimensional context," he said. Bioreplication, where the sample can be mechanically dissected and investigated with electron microscopes, offers better 3-D resolution at the nanoscale.

The method also is being used in England's Oxford University to study the internal biological changes by which spiders create different types of silk, adjusting their mechanisms on the fly (so to speak) to create thicker or stickier strands, said Brinker.

Blood as a possible raw material

In the JACS article, Kaehr and colleagues showed they could use the silica technique to make permanent alterations in natural objects. They introduced chemicals that transformed red blood cells from life-saver-like objects to spiky spheres. By introducing the silica slurry to the dish containing the altered red blood cells and letting the mixture harden, Kaehr and colleagues made the change permanent. Burning off the protoplasmic original, the team was left with microparticles that might be useful in rubber composites created by tire companies that routinely insert silica spheres in their tire mix for additional strength. Manufacturers would no longer need an energy-consuming factory to make the inserted material which, by bioreplication, would form cheaply and easily, Kaehr said.

Said Kaehr. "Our method has good potential over traditional silica additives, and its raw material -- blood -- is considered a waste product in the meat industry. "

In addition to food industry waste products, he said, "there's a huge amount of harmless bacteria out there we could co-opt to create still other shapes." Bacteria are harder to harvest, he said, because they are protected by a double sheath against silica invasion, but it could be done.

In the Nature Communications paper, Kaehr and colleagues took the same technique a step further. They took a liver, submerged it in a silica solution and then heated it anaerobically to come up with a hardened, carbonized, exact duplicate of the liver, from centimeter to nanometer scales. "We let nature do the work," he said, "because we don't yet know how to build an object accurately across six length scales, from centimeter to nanometers.

"Think about electrodes in batteries," he said. "That's a three-dimensional question. Now in livers and spleens, for example, evolution has already optimized absorption and diffusion in a three-dimensional organization. The liver is a marvelously effective organ with tremendous surface area for absorption and an unparalleled ability to release materials in channels ranging from large arteries to capillaries a few micrometers wide.

"If we transfer the hierarchical structure of a liver to an electrode, rather than having just a passive piece of solid material, we would have greater surface area per volume, greater energy storage, and have a creation that is already optimized to output fluids and small particles to much larger highways like large veins and arteries."

The carbonized method also can be used to better examine cancers and other growths without the often tedious and expensive processes normally necessary to "fix," process and stabilize the organic material for examination to prevent it from falling apart under electron-beam analysis. Carbon, because it conducts electricity instead of absorbing it, is not weakened and destroyed like protoplasm.

This creative consideration of the possibilities of the natural world in new and dizzying ways is in line with Kaehr's research sponsor --DOE's Office of Science, which is interested in "the exploration, discovery and design of biomimetic materials," he said. Portions of this work were performed at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a DOE Office of Science User Facility jointly led by Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories.


Sandia and UNM have applied for a joint patent on the set of methods.

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, Calif., Sandia has major R&D responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies and economic competitiveness.

Contact: Neal Singer nsinger@sandia.gov 505-845-7078 DOE / Sandia National Laboratories@SandiaLabs


Unknown said...

Thanks for providing such a great Information, you can see, we also provide
Peptide Synthesis

Blog27999 said...

Strange "water hack" burns 2 lbs overnight

At least 160 000 men and women are trying a easy and SECRET "liquids hack" to lose 1-2lbs each and every night in their sleep.

It's proven and it works with everybody.

You can do it yourself by following these easy steps:

1) Grab a drinking glass and fill it up half full

2) And now use this strange HACK

so you'll become 1-2lbs lighter in the morning!

eCom said...

thanks for the post!


Adam Lee said...

The use of flaxseed oil for industrial purpose is large but the use in food and cosmetics is building up and the flaxseed oil market is expected to grow at a relatively higher rate during the forecast period.

neha solanki said...

In India over 400 examinations are conducted every year and the exams are generally classified on the basis of the domain or field of study. Basically, they are bifurcated as Engineering, Law, Medicine, MBA, Design, Pharmacy, Computer Application, Finance and Accounts. These entrance exams take a toll of the candidate who aspires to crack it but with proper knowledge regarding how to top an exam, one can easily clear it. This page intends to furnish relevant information about the exam and the best ways to crack them.The best mba college in ghaziabad have all the courses which are good for the education system and in this management you can get top engineering college in uptu is also convenient for all.

Alice Addy said...

Informes de Expertos (IDE) latest report, titled “Mercado Latinoamericano de AccesoriosInteriores del Coche,Informe y Pronóstico 2021-2026”, it is expected that market in the region will attain around USD XX billion by 2026. The most important trends that is shaping the market is the increasing consumer inclination towards comfortable driving experience and rising personalization of the vehicle by young population. Rising demand for passenger car and increasing electronic retail salesin the auto aftermarket are further driving the growth of the market.

Alice Addy said...

Informes de Expertos (IDE) latest report, titled “Mercado Latinoamericano de Proteína Vegetal, Informe y Pronóstico 2021-2026”, finds that the vegetable protein market in the region reached around USD XX billion in 2020.Owing to the rising health consciousness, consumers are adopting healthy eating habits and the demand for plant-based proteins is accelerating. Factors like the increasing trend of veganism, the rise of flexitarianism and the tendency of people to spend on health products are driving the growth of the Latin American vegetable protein market. Furthermore, the increasing demand for nutritious snacks, on-the-go products, and plant-based protein drinks also function as the growth inducing factors.

Procurement Resource said...

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, belongs to a group of medicines called analgesics, that is, painkillers. Besides serving as a pain reliever, paracetamol is also used to treat fever, cold, and flu symptoms.

paracetamol manufacturing cost

Jamie Reade said...

Thanks for sharing a amazing post, I have not seen this informative article before.
buy instagram likes australia

oncasinosite said...

It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read more things about it! Feel free to visit my website; 바카라사이트

my website said...

How do you make this blog look this sick! Email me if you get the chance and share your wisdom. Id be thankful! 토토

my website said...

Well-written article. I was checking continuously to this website and Im really inspired! Very educational information, especially the fifth sentences. I really want this kind of info. I was looking for this particular knowledge for a very long. Thankx and best of luck. 카지노사이트

my website said...

Useful information. Lucky me I found your web site by chance, and I’m shocked why this coincidence did not took place earlier! I bookmarked it. 경 마

my website said...

i read a lot of stuff and i found that the way of writing to clearifing that exactly want to say was very good so i am impressed and ilike to come again in future.. 토토사이트

Yakshita said...

Thank you for posting such a great article. Keep it up mate.

Mukhyamantri Chiranjivi Yojana 2021

Yakshita said...

Thank you for posting such a great article. Keep it up mate.

jit payment status

totosafeguide said...

Awesome article, it was exceptionally helpful! I simply began in this and I'm becoming more acquainted with it better! Cheers, keep doing awesome! Feel free to visit my website; 먹튀검증가이드

totosafeguide said...

I love what you guys are up too. Such clever work and exposure! Keep up the very good works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my own blogroll. Feel free to visit my website; 카지노사이트링크

totosafeguide said...

I genuinely appreciate your content, this article has been really peaked my eye. Thanks for wonderful information. Feel free to visit my website; 온라인카지노사이트넷

totosafeguide said...

Hello to all, it’s genuinely a pleasant for me to pay a quick visit this website, it includes valuable Information. This is the great initiative taken as it makes all the researchers explore new ideas and share their perspective along with their colleagues Feel free to visit my website; 배트맨토토프로

Emma King said...

This is great and awsome post for me. i loved to read your blog. it's really-really amazing. thanks for inspired me by your blog. Online Garen Store
Wall Decor Basket Cycle Online
Cute Monk Set
Traditional URLI (Set Of 2)
Wine Bottle Wall Top Planter (Set Of 3)

Anne Markey said...

This is great and awsome post for me. i loved to read your blog. it's really-really amazing. thanks for inspired me by your blog.
Buy Online Pure & Natural Essential Oils
Buy Body Massage Essential Oil Online
Buy Hair Essential Oil Online Lowest Price
Buy Skin Essential Oil Online For Men/Women

Danielmarch said...

Thank you for shearing post amazing this is post very useful for me.
Adarsh Park Heights in Gunjur
Adarsh Park Heights
Adarsh Park Heights price
The Prestige Properties
Adarsh Property
Adarsh Constructions

spinonholiday said...

Nice information. Thanks for giving such an amazing information.
If you are looking for Goa Tourist places then worry not as we provide the top list of tourist places through our consultants. To know about the most visited places, famous beaches or their nightlife for a memorable holiday in Goa, take guidance from our consultants.

Kajal Agerwaal said...

It’s really nice and meaningful. It’s really cool blog. Thanks for sharing and please update some more information here. Students need to gain relevant ideas about the Courses after 12th. The changing time has provided various career segments through which they can see their future. However, a substantial decision can be taken by evaluating one's own likings towards the career field. Students can select the courses after completing their 12th as per the subject they had taken in the 12th itself from a career point of view.

Sofia Vergara said...

I read your post. It is amazing and helpful information for me. Thanks for sharing with everyone. Hi, I am Sofia Vergara While using Yahoo mail account, you are facing any kind of problem, and you need Yahoo Help. Here you will find Yahoo's 24/7 helpline number and you can easily solve your issues through Yahoo email technical experts.

Remer Mirror said...

I'm extremely inspired along with your writing skills as neatly as with the format in your blog. Is that a paid subject or did you customize it yourself? Anyway stay up the excellent quality writing, it's rare to look at a great blog like this one today.. www.remer.com.au

bellacallen said...

Excellent information. Thanks for giving me this information.
Are you perplexed by the Cash App Stock Pros And Cons? You can get instant help from experts just by calling the Cash App support number. Over the phone, the technical executives will suggest you Cash App issue. Call in the tech to fix any technical issues.

Steven Salvatore said...

Download Computeroids Printer Driver For Windows 7 with The Worlds Leading Drivers Site - Includes Free Drivers Scan & Report, fix Windows 7 Canon Printer Drivers errors

sofihayat said...

It’s really nice and meaningful. It’s really cool blog. Thanks for sharing and please update some more information here. Have you been looking for the Zelle customer service support, than you have arrived at the right destination. At this destination you will find the customer service help from zelle, and if you found some issues in using zelle, then you can resolve them by just a click on the given link.

Jyotihsash said...

The Indian education system is one of the most complex in the world. There are so many different types of exams, from state to national, that it can be difficult to keep track of what you need to do and when. Whether you're a student looking ahead at the next few years or a parent wondering how to get your child into a good school, this article will give you some insight into some of the Toughest Exams in India 2022.

sofihayat said...

If you are going to create a new Tinder account then the first thing on which you always need to give your priority is Tinder Bios! Yes, you heard it right, the best tinder bios for guys are very important which shows how you are and your personality. Most of the girls are quite interested to know about boys so to make your tinder bios perfect you can follow the link given on this section which is redirected to get tinder bios for guys. Find Best Tinder Bios For.

tonny said...

idigicau is the most effective and safest way to buy instagram likes. Our service is 100% safe and secure, with a 99.9% satisfaction rate. idigicau has over 13 years of experience in providing solutions for all your needs related to social media marketing. We provide fast delivery of likes, followers, views and comments with 24/7 customer support.

Gerry Max said...

If you are having difficulty with your Yahoo business email account, then here are a few things you can do to get online again. First, check your internet connection to solve the Yahoo small business email problems. It's also a good idea to verify that your app's Yahoo Small Biz email settings are correctly configured if you access business email via an app like Outlook Thunderbird. Yahoo Small Biz email settings

vectorgui said...

Vectorgi is the perfect mobile skin design download. Our updated skin templates are designed to look and feel great on any phone, and they come with all the features you need to create beautiful, responsive websites. Plus, they're easy to use—just drag and drop them into your web or app design project!

Spin On Education said...

Honeymoon Destinations has been an important aspect for newly married couples. Usually, they have no idea about what place they should choose to create memories. This is why they keep on searching for Honeymoon Destinations In India that may enable them to start a new journey of their life with a memorable beginning. People who are exploring destinations for Honeymoon may also take the help of consultants.

Mobile Skin Templates said...

ar skins is the perfect mobile skin cricut cutting templates for your next project. We have a wide range of mobile skin cricutcutting templates that are designed to meet the needs of your project. From simple templates that are perfect for just one task, to more complex templates that can be used for a variety of projects, we have you covered. Our mobile skin cricutcutting templates are easy to use and create beautiful, responsive websites without any coding required.click here

Psp Skin Templates said...

Cowerking office space for rent in the center of Midtown East, Manhattan. Our forefront and open office spaces are great for any privately owned business or startup. Decisively positioned near all critical transportation, our office space offers an ideal spot and all of the comforts you need to complete your work.
coworking office space

머니상 said...

I think it's a website with a lot of good contents. I think I accumulate a lot of knowledge.
Please come to my website and give me a lot of advice.
It's my website.


Dương Dương said...

Thank you very much. Can I refer to your post on my website? Your post touched me a lot and helped me a lot. If you have any questions, please visit my site and read what kind of posts I am posting. I am sure it will be interesting. 카지노커뮤니티

لمسات الابداع said...

تسليك مجاري بالدمام
تسليك مجاري بالخبر
تسليك مجاري بالقصيم
تسليك مجاري بالاحساء
تسليك مجاري بالجبيل
تسليك مجاري بالقطيف
تسليك مجاري بابها
تسليك مجارى بخميس مشيط

Post a Comment